Those five are the duties of universal obligation.
Mar 22, Abstract Democratization in non-Western societies NWS has historically resulted in the introduction or imitation of the modern West European democracy model supply factor. However, the process took less time in countries that shared homogeneity or similarities with WES, especially fellow the other European countries.
NWS accept these modern elements and attempt to transplant them into the traditional society, with one major element being democracy, in all its various stages and forms.
While each society chooses the most suitable form to adopt for its own society, if the model is incompatible the enforceability of the format will be reduced. Another problem is the fact that democracy will not take root and become established on autopilot once it is introduced in a new society.
The following is an attempt to figure out why this happens. Democratization and Theories of Democracy Preceding studies on democratization and democracy While the reader may wish to refer to the past literature on conventional theories of democracy, this paper seems to be the first to analyze democratization and the subsequent process from the perspectives mentioned above.
Although political science is the most directly related field in the discussion of democratization theory research, it cannot handle all the factors involved in democratization process, i.
In particular, it is inadequate to discuss democracy in NWS focusing only on democratization, because these societies are basically in premodern states. Since the s, political science has been paying attention to democratization, which was brought about around the globe by the Third Wave, through which many countries began to move toward democratization.
Numerous arguments on democratization have come out of these phenomena, but in recent years, some of the theories have been merging [ 1 ]. Though inadequate, Actor-Centered Approach ACA is currently the most dominant, and it is employed to analyze the process of democratization of many non-Western emerging countries with certain effectiveness.
However, the theory is effective in so far as explaining the transition process to democratization, and not afterwards. It is therefore necessary to build a theoretical hypothesis around the entire series of events surrounding democracy such as the establishment, stability and development of a democracy, as well as how to avoid its regression and collapse.
ACA argues that the transition from the authoritarian regime to the democratization process has nothing to do with economy, historyculture, etc. It presupposes a strategy game between the four parties among governing actor and the opposition actor, combinations of which render several transition types.
According to this theory, it is unclear as to how the new democracy will be able to thrive, or whether regression and collapse can be avoided. In short, we still seem short of a single framework in political science that would explain the reasons why some countries democratize better than others, as well as why some fail to maintain the democratic process while others succeed [ 2 ].
Stabilization and establishment of democracy In the past several decades since the Third Wave, there have been countries that successfully transformed into democracies and those that did not. What set them apart? In WES, the process of initiating a democratic regime can be regarded as the same process as the subsequent establishment and stabilization process, while NWS may be a totally different story.
Politically speaking, there are two stages of democratization. The first starts with the collapse of the authoritarian regime and ends with the establishment of a democracy. The second process involves the stabilization and sustainment of the newly established democracy after eliminating the remaining authoritarian factors.
However, the author sees these two as one process, both having a lot to do with each other. The democracy won by revolution and its subsequent establishment may seem to be separate issues, but they are indeed a series of inseparable and intertwined processes.
Historically, democracy in the West was born out of the modernization process closely related to political, social and cultural elements, and was not a mere political phenomenon. On the other hand, democratization in Asia is often a switch from a dictatorship system that suppresses democratization, and as a result, democratization does not always end up taking root permanently.
One of them is the lack of distinction between WES, especially France, which produced modern democracy, and NWS which only formally accepts it.In Japan and other non-Western societies (NWS), it is customary to imitate or accept modern elements created by West European societies (WES) when striving for the development of economy and politics.
Modernization in NWS diffused from WES to NWS over a long time and with many obstacles. Economic anthropology is the product of a juxtaposition of two academic disciplines in the twentieth century. It would be wrong to speak of the relationship between economics and anthropology as a .
JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources. BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard. Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.
It is conventionally measured as the percent rate of increase in real gross domestic product, or real GDP.. Growth is usually calculated in real terms - i.e., inflation-adjusted terms – to eliminate the distorting effect of inflation on the price of goods produced.
One of the key problems of present-day economics is the role of money and other liquid assets in the structure of economic decisions—particularly in the decisions of firms and households to save and to invest in durable real assets, such as factories, machinery, houses, and vehicles.