Different indigenous groups have had their own traditions and terms to refer to transgender people, gender variance or sexual identity. Similarly, the Kutenai titqattek describes women who took on roles traditionally characterized as masculine, including hunting and warfare. Many other indigenous groups recognise similar terms: The European colonialists would describe such individuals as "homosexuals", "a curious compound of man and woman" or "berdache", meaning a catamite or a male prostitute.
Receipt of Public Assistance Intersectionality In recent years, human rights analysis has evolved to take into account the context in which discrimination occurs. Under the Code, individuals are protected from discrimination and harassment on the grounds listed above.
However, there is an increased recognition that discrimination is often based on more than one ground, and that these grounds may intersect thus producing unique experiences of discrimination.
The phenomenon of intersectionality is frequently evident in complaints of discrimination in the area of rental housing accommodation. Often, tenants will experience differential treatment based on more than one ground, and these grounds will play off one another. For example, a young lone mother in receipt of public assistance who is looking for rental housing could potentially experience discrimination on the basis of her gender, age, family status and receipt of public assistance.
While the following sections discuss each Code ground individually, it is important to be mindful of the potential for more than one ground to be at issue simultaneously, and for these grounds to intersect.
As such, this Paper highlights some of the more common intersections of grounds, where appropriate. Race and Related Code Grounds In addition to race, the Code prohibits discrimination in rental housing on several related grounds, as outlined above.
These grounds include primarily the grounds of colour, ethnic origin, ancestry, place of origin, citizenship and creed religion. Depending on the circumstances, a human rights complaint of discrimination based on race may Sexual discrimination of transgendered individuals race alone or may include one or more related ground s.
However, as a social construct, the ground of race is capable of encompassing the meaning of all of the related grounds, and any characteristic that is racialized  and used to discriminate. Racial discrimination in rental housing may take a variety of forms.
It is likely that the most common problem that racialized persons continue to face is the denial of opportunities to apply for rental housing or to view properties.
In this regard, landlords may use subtle screening methods to bypass certain individuals in the tenant selection process. Racialized persons may be advised that an apartment has already been rented only to have a White friend inquire about the availability of the accommodation and be told that it is still available.
There are several human rights cases in Ontario that have dealt with this type of racial discrimination. For example, in Richards v. Waisglass a Board of Inquiry found that the respondent discriminated against the complainant, a Black woman, because of her race when he refused to rent her an apartment.
When the complainant and the respondent met, the respondent appeared reserved, refused to take any information from her and stated that he wished to keep showing the apartment to other prospective tenants. The Board found that the respondent could not have come to a reasonable conclusion that the complainant would be loud and have noisy parties during their brief encounter and concluded that he had decided it was unlikely that the complainant would be financially stable and would likely have parties.
The Board found that both assumptions were based on negative stereotypes about Black people. For example, in the s and s, the U.
Department of Housing and Urban Development backed several broad housing audits that produced significant evidence of discrimination toward and differential treatment of racialized persons across major U.
For instance, Black and Hispanic auditors posing as prospective apartment renters were shown 25 percent fewer units than White auditors with comparable income qualifications. The authors relied on socio-linguistic research that shows that individuals are able to make fairly accurate racial attributions on the basis of linguistic cues alone.
These racial effects interacted with and were generally exacerbated by gender and class. Lower-class blacks experienced less access to rental housing than middle-class blacks, and black females experienced less access than black males.
By far the most distinguished group, however, was lower-class black females. Across all measures, female speakers of Black English Vernacular consistently fared the worst. As a result of this unusually intense discrimination, poor black women in Philadelphia are forced to spend far more of their time and put in much greater effort making phone calls just to reach prospective landlords.
These audits indicate that individuals from Black and Aboriginal communities, in particular, are subjected to discriminatory treatment when seeking to rent housing.
The Commission has heard several reports of individuals being subjected to Islamophobia  by housing providers when attempting to secure rental accommodations. Racial discrimination in rental housing accommodation is not just about the denial of access to housing opportunities. Racialized tenants may experience unequal access to housing-related services or may otherwise be subjected to differential treatment throughout the course of their tenancies.
For example, tenants may be subjected to substandard living conditions or a failure to carry out repairs. In Ontario Human Rights Comm.Feature Ladyboys in the Gulf The riches of the United Arab Emirates hold promise for transgender sex workers, but also danger and unspeakable cruelty.
2. Which federal law covers sex or gender discrimination? Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of is a federal law that protects individuals from discrimination based upon sex. This law makes it illegal for an employer to discriminate against individuals in hiring, firing, and other terms and conditions of employment, such as promotions, raises, and other job opportunities because of their sex.
Overview. The protections. Jurisdiction. What is discrimination? Differential treatment. The causal relationship. Who are the Protected Groups?
Summing it Up. Gay and transgender individuals continue to and businesses have adopted nondiscrimination protections that prohibit discrimination based on sexual. a) Defining discrimination. Discrimination is not defined in the Code but usually includes the following elements.
not individually assessing the unique merits, capacities and circumstances of a person. I. INTRODUCTION. 1. It is with great pleasure that the Government of the United States of America presents its Fourth Periodic Report to the United Nations Human Rights Committee concerning the implementation of its obligations under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (“the Covenant” or “ICCPR”), in accordance with Covenant Article