Bush on May 21, Health insurance discrimination[ edit ] InThe New York Times reported that some individuals avoid genetic testing out of fear it will impede their ability to purchase insurance or find a job.
Genetic Testing What is genetic testing? Genetic testing is a means of determining if you are carrying a genetic mutation which has the potential to cause a medical condition.
The testing detects changes in the genes, chromosomes Genetic discrimination proteins that could result in a genetic condition. It is typically used to assess the risk of developing an inherited disorder and the presence of abnormalities.
The test results can be used Genetic discrimination determine the chances of an individual developing an inherited disorder and the risk of a parent passing on a disorder to their child. There are hundreds of different genetic tests being used and new tests are becoming available all the time. Testing usually involves a blood sample being taken and analysed - the sample contains DNA and this is analysed to check for mutations.
Genetic testing is generally only useful if a condition is known to be caused by a specific genetic mutation or abnormality. For example, spinal muscular atrophy is caused by a specific mutation, so it is possible to determine the risk of an individual developing the condition by analysing their DNA.
The testing is done on a voluntary basis and the decision to have a test is down to the individual. There is help and advice available from genetic counsellors to help you decide whether or not to have a test.
There are advantages and disadvantages of testing with support and advice available to help you make a decision. What are the advantages of genetic testing?
Genetic testing can be beneficial regardless of the result. If the result is negative this can provide great relief and peace of mind, while a positive result can enable people to prepare and start making decisions based on information about the condition and advice from doctors and genetic counsellors.
The test result can also give you an idea of your prognosis and enable doctors to be more specific in terms of the information they can give you.
The results can also allow treatment planning at an early stage, which can have a positive effect on quality of life and life expectancy. Test results also have the potential to aid people in making choices about their future, especially in terms of having children.
If there is a low risk of passing on a genetic condition, this may give people peace of mind if they are considering having children.
While a positive test result may contribute to people deciding not to have children if there is a high risk of their offspring developing the condition.
Screening tests for newborn babies can help to identify conditions at a very early stage, which enables doctors to treat the condition where possible and gives parents time to accept the test result and start preparing for the future. The major difference between research testing and clinical testing is the purpose of testing: Research testing is important for clinical testing as the more information researchers can find out the better the understanding for doctors and patients.
Research testing involves finding new genes, linking genes and genetic mutations to specific medical conditions, and finding out how genes work and affect individuals. The results of research tests are not commonly available for public consumption. Clinical genetic testing aims to provide patients and families with more information about specific genetic conditions.
The results of clinical genetic tests are used to inform people about their condition, so that they are able to make well-informed decisions about their future.
Results are also used by doctors to draw-up suitable treatment plans. It is essential for people to be aware of the difference between research and clinical genetics testing. Patients must consent to both types of testing and the benefits and risks should always be highlighted. How much does genetic testing cost?
The price of genetic testing varies according to the tests involved and the provider of the test. This includes newborn screening tests, cancer genetic testing and genetic testing for other inherited disorders.
DNA tests to determine paternity are not currently available on the NHS and the price varies according to the clinic you choose.
Private testing carries a fee and this will increase if more than one family member is being tested. The cost will depend on a number of factors including the type of test and the clinic you visit. It is always beneficial to get a full written quote beforehand if you do choose a private clinic.
It can take several weeks for the results of the test to become available.The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of (Pub.L. –, Stat. , enacted May 21, , GINA, pronounced Jee-na), is an Act of Congress in the United States designed to prohibit some types of genetic iridis-photo-restoration.com act bars the use of genetic information in health insurance and employment: it prohibits group health plans and health insurers from denying coverage to a.
Current Initiative: GINA and Wellness Programs. The Genetic Information Non-Discrimination Act (GINA) ensures that all Americans are free from genetic discrimination .
Genetic discrimination occurs when people are treated differently by their employer or insurance company because they have a gene mutation that causes or increases the risk of an inherited disorder. Fear of discrimination is a common concern among people considering genetic testing.
What is GINA? The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of (GINA) is a federal law that protects individuals from genetic discrimination in health insurance and employment.
The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article, discuss the issue on the talk page, or create a new article, as appropriate.
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